cannabis concentrates

Cannabis Concentrates 101: Everything You Should Know

Posted, Editing and Photos Added by Valkyrie Extractions Admin


Cannabis concentrates are trending up in Canada. The market for this type of cannabis has been steadily growing over the past few years, and it now makes up more than 20% of recreational cannabis across the country. With so many products to choose from, how can you make sure you’re getting what you need? This blog will cover everything you should know about cannabis concentrates in Canada.

Concentrates come in many different varieties and consistencies including shatter, live resin, budder/wax and THCA Diamonds. Let’s explore some tips on how to find out which concentrate will work best for you.

What are Cannabis Concentrates or Cannabis Extracts?

Cannabis concentrates are the product of distilling down the most desired parts of cannabis plants called trichomes. They contain all cannabinoids and terpenes from the flowers. Ounce for ounce, marijuana concentrate has a greater proportion of these desirable substances than raw flower does.


The Importance of Terpenes for your Concentrates

Cannabinoids and terpenes are like the spice of life. It’s what makes cannabis so satisfying to consume, whether it be for recreational or medicinal purposes.

The terpenes in cannabis are organic compounds that give the plant its distinctive smell. Terpene profiles affect how we feel when it is smoked. For this reason, terpenes play an important role in concentrates production because they can be extracted to create a more targeted product.

There are terpenes with a calming effect (linalool) and others that can stimulate the mind like limonene. There is also terpene found in cannabis called beta-caryophyllene, which has an anti-inflammatory effect on our lungs. This terpene combination of linalool, limonene, and beta-caryophyllene is called terpsolate.


High terpene full-spectrum extracts (HTFSE)

HTFSE contains a high concentration of terpenes which allows them to capture more flavour and fragrance from these compounds. They have been shown to provide a more complex and balanced experience compared to HCFSE (High Cannabinoid Full Spectrum Extracts) concentrates.  As a general rule HTFSE tends to be runnier concentrates because terpenes are basically “essential oils”. The runnier is your concentrate the more terpenes it will have. As well it will likely contain lesser cannabinoids. It is all matter of preferences here.

High Terpene Full-Spectrum Extracts (HTFSE)


Types of extraction methods for concentrates: Solventless extraction vs. Solvent-based extraction

Solventless extraction

Solventless extraction has been gaining traction as a method to extract concentrates. Trichomes are the glandular, crystalline-like structures on the flower of a cannabis plant that are extracted from cannabis.

Rosin, Bubble Hash, Dry Sift Hash and Kief are some of the most famous Solventless Concentrates. Many people prefer solventless extraction because the process does not use solvents which can alter the terpene profile of the extract and can have negative health implications if not done properly.


Solvent-based extraction

There are many types of extraction methods for cannabis concentrates. Solvent-based extraction is one method, and it extracts the tricomes from the cannabis by dissolving it in a solvent. The most common solvent used in the cannabis industry are butane, propane, alcohol, and CO2.

Butane hash oil (BHO): This is the most common solvent-based extraction method. BHO is made by separating the THC from the cannabis plant using butane gas as a solvent. BHO can be dangerous to make at home if not done properly because it requires chemical to extract the THC .

Butane Hash Oil (BHO)


Propane Hash Oil (PHO): Propane hash oil (PHO): This process is similar to butane extraction; except it’s done at higher pressures and a lower boiling point. THC content: 70-90%.

Propane Hash Oil (PHO)


CO2 Oil extraction is a method of extracting the oils from cannabis plants that was developed in 2013 and made commercially available in 2014. It is considered the safest method of extraction for most people because it uses natural gas instead of artificial chemical solvents that are flammable, explosive and toxic.

CO2 Oil 


Ethanol Hash Oil (EHO): It’s done by adding ethanol to a regular batch of cannabis concentrates and letting the ethanol evaporate off at room temperature, leaving pure THC or CBD oil behind in its original form.

Ethanol Hash Oil (EHO)


Understand concentrate product descriptions

Cannabis concentrate can be a little bit confusing at first. There are various types of concentrates, a jargon that is not always easy to understand. You’ll find below three common information that you will find on label.


You should already be familiar with the strains. There are three main types of cannabis strains. Indica, Sativa, and Hybrid. Each type have thousands of specific strains such as Blue Dream, Girl Scout Cookies etc… Choose the one that match best with your needs and preferences.


Raw Material

The quality of cannabis concentrate depends on the source material. The resulting cannabinoid and terpene profiles can be altered by changing inputs as well, which may result in different potency or flavour profiles for all products made with this input type.

Trim run is a low-quality form of cannabis with high quantities of stems, leaves, seeds, etc. It is the leftover from harvesting the cannabis buds and nugs. The trim run can be made into hash or kief depending on the size of the nugs that are trimmed on it.

Nug run is exclusive high-quality cannabis product in which only bud flowers are processed. This is achieved by simply only trimming off the leafy materials from the plants, without any other steps to produce this type of cannabis.

Live is fresh or frozen cannabis. It is opposed to the usual dried flower. The point of using Live Buds is to maintain the terpene profile from the flower without any alteration.



The terms that cause the most confusion are the ones that describe the texture. Shatter, badder, crumble, and sauce all refer to its appearance and consistency.

The process of extracting THC from cannabis produces a variety of textures. When making concentrates. The resulting texture will have an effect not only upon how they taste but also on the overall experience. Some people prefer runnier concentrates while others may favour something more viscous for scooping purposes. Ultimately, there are no “bad” types since everyone has their own preferences.


Types of cannabis concentrate in Canada

There are many different types of cannabis concentrates or textures, and it’s hard to decide which type is right for you. Here are some options: shatter, live resin, budder, THCA Diamonds…it all depends on your preference.



Shatter is the most common form of cannabis concentrate. It becomes hard when it cools down, making shatter easier to break off into smaller pieces for smoking or vaping than other cannabis concentrates such as oil. Shatter has THC levels that can range from 75% to 95%.

Shatter prices are between $10 and $40 per gram depending on the quality and quantities you are looking for.

Nukem Shatter


Live Resin

Live Resin is cannabis that is extracted in a way to maintain all of the cannabis plant’s natural terpenes. The result is a cannabis extract that has an extremely high terpene content compared to most cannabis extracts made today. These terpenes are not just in trace amounts but instead, they make up the majority.

Live resin prices are between $20 and $40 per gram depending on the quantities you are looking for.

Grease Monkey Live Resin



THCA (Diamonds)

The term “Diamond” comes from the crystalline structures they develop in the sauce. The colour is simply crystal clear once the sauce is removed, as for the consistency it is basically like diamonds, hard with sharp edges. When buying THCA Diamonds you should look at the product and check if you can see sauce in it, if yes you can be sure that it will be full of terpenes.

THCA (Diamonds)


Terp Sauce

Terp Sauce is the name for the runny and full of terpene concentrate HTSFE. Cannabis enthusiasts enjoy the sweet, velvet texture of the sauce and will be familiar with sauce carts, or vape cartridges loaded with terpene-heavy sauce.

Blue Dream Terp Sauce



THC Distillate

THC Distillate is a Cannabis concentrate that is used for a variety of purposes, from vaping to cooking. The consistency is thick when is stored in a cold place but becomes runny when warmed, making it easier to use in cooking and baking. The colour of THC Distillate is from clear to dark amber. The THC levels for THC distillate is 90% on average but can go up to 99%.

There are almost no terpenes in THC distillate, so if you are looking for a flavourful experience with the entourage effect of a specific strain that might no be your type of concentrate.

Delta 9 THC Distillate


Wax/Budder are all just synonyms for this type of texture. Budder will often have the same consistency as wax but will slightly vary in stiffness between different batches. The Wax concentrate offers high potencies, but degrades more quickly and isn’t as stable as shatter for example which comes in hard form. Its buttery texture makes it malleable and easy to handle. Its colour can vary from sunny yellow to orange.


Skywalker OG Budder



Hash is a dried cannabis resin that’s been compressed into small brick. It comes in different forms and colours, depending on the extraction method used. Dry sift hash is made by rubbing marijuana over screens or sieves to create a powdery smokable material also known as kief. Bubble hash is cannabis material that’s been mixed with water and ice and then filtered through bubble bags.

Hash can be black, brownish, green or yellowish. The colour depends on what plant matter was used for production as well as how much chlorophyll was present during processing.

Afghani Hash



Kief refers to the crystallized resin glands that fall from dried marijuana flowers. It is a flavorful substance. It has a high concentration of THC compared to cannabis flowers because it is only trichomes where all the cannabinoids come from. The potency can vary depending on how you collect kief from your marijuana, but it will always be stronger than your average weed. High-Quality Kief should be light brown which is basically the colour of trichomes. The greener is the kief the more plant material it carries and the lower is the quality.

Premium Death Bubba Kief


Popular Ways to Consume Concentrates

Dabbing – Most common

Dabbing is by far the most common consumption method in Canada when it comes to concentrates. The term dabbing refers to using cannabis concentrates via this process of heating up nails, vaporizing them and then taking in the resulting fumes by breathing it into your mouth rather than smoking it out of a bong or a joint like you would for weed.

Most people use a Dab rig to consume cannabis concentrates. To use the dab rig you have to heat up the nail, which is basically a bong bowl, with a torch or an electronic lighter. Then you place the concentrate on the hot surface, your concentrate will instantly turn into an inhalable vapour.

Man Dabbing Concentrates


Vape Pens – Discreet

Unscrew the tank section from your vape pen, then fill it up with concentrate by using either a dab tool or concentrate syringe that fits into the top opening on an empty cartridge (these cartridges usually come pre-loaded). Screw back together before proceeding with any other step in order to avoid leaks!

If you don’t have concentrates and you don’t want to manipulate them you can simply buy cartridges that already have concentrates in them. That is the simplest way for you to consume marijuana.

Vaping offers benefits such as no lingering smells, easier cleanup and easy portability which leads many people who partake in concentrates to use vape pens.

Valkyrie Extractions Lit Pod Vape Pens


Edibles – Longer Effects

Edibles are a popular way of consuming cannabis concentrate. They come in many different forms, such as gummies, chocolates and cookies. Note that beginners should start with 5-10mg edibles, while the strongest edibles can go up to 1250mg of THC.

Eating your Cannabis concentrates will give you the same high that smoking or vaping would but there are also some other benefits to consider. For one thing you won’t have any smoke when you’re eating an edible which means no coughing or yellowing nails.

It can take up to two hours for edibles to kick in and it stays longer in your body. If you are looking for a safe way to medicate Edibles may be best for you.

Valkyrie Extractions Sour Cherry 1000mg Gummies


On top of your joint or Pipe – Easy Way

By adding kief or wrapping a joint in wax, you can up your smoking potency to an extreme level. This is easy and takes little effort on the user’s part with both substances requiring only a small amount of extra work for hefty benefits.


If you’re looking for a way to add more flavour and potency to your joint, look no further. You don’t need any of the expensive equipment or dabbing supplies required when using concentrates in other ways. The following methods are easy-to-follow tips that will offer everything from increased flavours to extra puffs without costing an arm and leg.

Adding Concentrates To A Joint


The Price of Extracts

For Canadians, concentrates are an expensive route of administration. On average $30-$50 per gram is the median price for solvent-based products like shatter or waxes. Kief and hash may cost less at around $20 a gram but potency will be lower than purer extracts such as THC oil’s 90%+ purity rate.




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